linux下配置php环境 nginx+mysql+php5.5

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linux下安装mysql
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一、系统环境
yum update升级以后的系统版本为

[root@yl-web yl]# cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS Linux release 7.1.1503 (Core)
二、mysql安装
一般网上给出的资料都是
#yum install mysql
#yum install mysql-server
#yum install mysql-devel
安装mysql和mysql-devel都成功,但是安装mysql-server失败,如下:

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[root@yl-web yl]# yum install mysql-server
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* base: mirrors.sina.cn
* extras: mirrors.sina.cn
* updates: mirrors.sina.cn
No package mysql-server available.
Error: Nothing to do
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查资料发现是CentOS 7 版本将MySQL数据库软件从默认的程序列表中移除,用mariadb代替了。

有两种解决办法:
1、方法一:安装mariadb
MariaDB数据库管理系统是MySQL的一个分支,主要由开源社区在维护,采用GPL授权许可。开发这个分支的原因之一是:甲骨文公司收购了MySQL后,有将MySQL闭源的潜在风险,因此社区采用分支的方式来避开这个风险。MariaDB的目的是完全兼容MySQL,包括API和命令行,使之能轻松成为MySQL的代替品。

安装mariadb,大小59 M。

[root@yl-web yl]# yum install mariadb-server mariadb
mariadb数据库的相关命令是:

systemctl start mariadb #启动MariaDB

systemctl stop mariadb #停止MariaDB

systemctl restart mariadb #重启MariaDB

systemctl enable mariadb #设置开机启动

所以先启动数据库

[root@yl-web yl]# systemctl start mariadb
然后就可以正常使用mysql了

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[root@yl-web yl]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 3
Server version: 5.5.41-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type ‘help;’ or ‘\h’ for help. Type ‘\c’ to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> show databases;
+——————–+
| Database |
+——————–+
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| performance_schema |
| test |
+——————–+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>
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安装mariadb后显示的也是 MariaDB [(none)]> ,可能看起来有点不习惯。下面是第二种方法。
2、方法二:官网下载安装mysql-server
# wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-community-release-el7-5.noarch.rpm
# rpm -ivh mysql-community-release-el7-5.noarch.rpm
# yum install mysql-community-server
安装成功后重启mysql服务。

# service mysqld restart
初次安装mysql,root账户没有密码。

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[root@yl-web yl]# mysql -u root
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3
Server version: 5.6.26 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type ‘help;’ or ‘\h’ for help. Type ‘\c’ to clear the current input statement.

mysql> show databases;
+——————–+
| Database |
+——————–+
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| performance_schema |
| test |
+——————–+
4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql>
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设置密码
mysql> set password for ‘root’@’localhost’ =password(‘password’);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql>
不需要重启数据库即可生效。

在mysql安装过程中如下内容:

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Installed:
mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7 mysql-community-devel.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7
mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7 mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7

Dependency Installed:
mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:5.6.26-2.el7

Replaced:
mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0 mariadb-devel.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0 mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0
mariadb-server.x86_64 1:5.5.41-2.el7_0
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所以安装完以后mariadb自动就被替换了,将不再生效。

[root@yl-web yl]# rpm -qa |grep mariadb
[root@yl-web yl]#
三、配置mysql
1、编码
mysql配置文件为/etc/my.cnf
最后加上编码配置

[mysql]
default-character-set =utf8
这里的字符编码必须和/usr/share/mysql/charsets/Index.xml中一致。
2、远程连接设置
把在所有数据库的所有表的所有权限赋值给位于所有IP地址的root用户。

mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to root@’%’identified by ‘password';
如果是新用户而不是root,则要先新建用户
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ‘lnc’@’%’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘li27212871205′ WITH GRANT OPTION;
flush privileges;

查询数据库的用户(看到如下内容表示创建新用户成功了)
SELECT DISTINCT CONCAT(‘User: ”’,user,”’@”’,host,”';’) AS query FROM mysql.user;
mysql>create user ‘username’@’%’ identified by ‘password';
此时就可以进行远程连接了。
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linux下安装PHP5.5,ps:centos使用yum install php php-mysql php-fpm都是安装的php5.4版本
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在更新PHP之前,先查看下当前PHP版本,避免重复的更新
# php -v

检查当前PHP的安装包
# yum list installed | grep php

移除当前PHP的安装包,否则容易起冲突
# yum remove php*

由于默认的YUM源无法升级PHP,所以需要添加第三方的YUM源,此处用到webtatic。
因为是CentOS 6.5,所以用以下URL
# rpm -Uvh http://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el6/latest.rpm
如果是CentOS 7.x
rpm -Uvh https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/epel-release.rpm
rpm -Uvh https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/webtatic-release.rpm

查看YUM源上能用PHP安装包
# yum list php*
一定要安装php-fpm,如果没有安装你将启动不了php

安装PHP5.5及需要的扩展
# yum install php55w php55w-devel php55w-common php55w-mysql php55w-pdo php55w-opacache php55w-xml

再次查看PHP版本,以确认安装是否成功
对了,如果你的PHP要用到Redis,请别忘了安装php-redis 扩展
# yum install php-redis
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linux安装nginx 如果是CentOS直接使用yum install nginx就可以完成安装,如果需要源码编译安装的话,请自行百度
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linux下启动nginx、php、mysql常用命令
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apache
启动
systemctl start httpd
停止
systemctl stop httpd
重启
systemctl restart httpd
mysql
启动
systemctl start mysqld
停止
systemctl stop mysqld
重启
systemctl restart mysqld
php-fpm
启动
systemctl start php-fpm
停止
systemctl stop php-fpm
重启
systemctl restart php-fpm
nginx
启动
systemctl start nginx
停止
systemctl stop nginx
重启
systemctl restart nginx

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nginx配置php、以及多站点的配置
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配置PHP:
include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
location / {
root /usr/share/nginx/html;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
}
location ~ \.php$ {
root html;
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/share/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;
include fastcgi_params;
}

配置多个站点
server {
listen 80;
server_name www.lnctime.com; #此处 www.a.com 为访问域名
#charset koi8-r;

access_log /home/www/access_logs/lnctime.access.log main;

location / {
root /home/www/lnctime/; #文件存放目录,此处 www.a.com 为文件夹名称
index index.html index.htm index.php;
if (-f $request_filename/index.html){
rewrite (.*) $1/index.html break;
}
if (-f $request_filename/index.php){
rewrite (.*) $1/index.php;
}
if (!-f $request_filename){
rewrite (.*) /index.php;
}
}
rewrite /wp-admin$ $scheme://$host$uri/ permanent;
location ~ \.php$ {
root html;
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /home/www/lnctime$fastcgi_script_name;
include fastcgi_params;
}

#error_page 404 /404.html;

# redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
#
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
root html;
}
}

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